The way people obtain information, learn, and connect with others across the world has changed dramatically as a result of technological advancements. Technology has eliminated distance constraints, allowing higher education to efficiently teach anybody. In order to improve teaching and learning, technology integration is becoming more common in classrooms. A better pattern for recognizing new teaching models has evolved as a result of the fast expansion of technology integration. As a result, it is critical in both learning and teaching language skills. There are numerous advantages to using technology to offer an environment for teaching and learning English skills. The objectives of the current review article were to discover answers to the issues of how technology integration promotes language learning and what the most current developments in language learning are. According to research, introducing technology into classrooms substantially improved teaching and learning English language skills.
Language Teaching, Integration, Technology, Strategies
Foreign language instruction based on technology has produced numerous effective learning tools. The use of technology in education makes the target language easy to control. Apprentices have higher opportunities to improve their foreign language abilities if they are boosted by technology; thus, technological learning is a major aspect in motivating students into improved learning (Chun et al., 2016). Hubbard (2013) has argued that technology is fundamental to the process of globalization and has an effect on education and culture. Many of the researchers, including (Chapelle & Voss, 2016), have confirmed that technology enhances the growth of learner knowledge and instructional approaches. According to Gangaiamaran & Pasupathi (2017) technology allows pupils to arrange their own learning and get access to a plethora of facts that their professors are unable to provide. Richards (2015) noted that new instruments, methodologies and strategies in the education and development of language skills were created in the unique chances offered by technologies. Technologies are growing and affecting many elements of our social and work life as well as many of our recreational hobbies. Many researchers have indicated that technology can be used as a teaching and language education instrument (Hermes & King, 2013; Krystalli et al., 2020).
Q1: How does Technology Promote Learning?
Q2: What are the Recent Developments of Technology Integration in Language Learning?
Purpose of the Study
The usage of technology has become a significant element in and out of the learning procedure. Generally, every language class practices certain technological methods. Technology was employed both to assist and improve language teaching and learning. Teachers are able to adjust their teaching activities to improve language learning. As a tool for teachers to help their learners acquire languages, technology continues to become more important (Kim, 2014; Banditvilai, 2016; Blume, 2019). So, the implication of ICT tools in language teaching and learning has greatly affected the way of gaining knowledge and learning of the learners. Keeping in mind the status of ICT integration in language learning, the purposes of conducting the current review study were (i) to define technology integration, (ii) the Role of ICT in indorsing language teaching and learning with instructors’ and students’ roles (iii) Recent developments of ICT integration in language teaching and learning (iv) some recommendations for successful integration of ICT in language teaching and learning.
Figure 1: Review Selection Process
Review of Relevant Literature
Due to the introduction of technology, the technique of language education was significantly altered. Technology offers many advantages as education makes progress more exciting and productive. Using technology encourages students to engage and study according to their interests. It was widely recognized in the current world for teaching English. Technology meets students' visual and aural senses (Lai et al., 2016). In the classroom, technology may be useful through enabling communication, producing training products, and improving the self-expression of learners (Kukulska-Hulme & Viberg, 2018; Heil et al., 2016). The key role of technology has to be recognized, concluded Farr & Murray (2016) in the discussion about the problems of education, training and training. The experts also pointed out that usage of technology in instruction opens up a new field of facts and gives way for transforming current education approaches. Many researchers from many fields have studied the influence on the education of technology. The researchers, including (Godwin-Jones, 2017; Xu et al., 2020), concluded that technology supports the instructors to enhance their instruction methods and learners learn more
Q 1: How does Technology Promotes Learning?
Costley (2014) proposed in a study that technology can contribute greatly to learning by increasing the involvement of learners in relevant and genuine curricula. Technology is an apprenticeship. It should be picked if it is the best learning instrument for students. For language learners, technology can be an efficient tool. A major component of their academic programme should start employing technology equipment. Teachers should model technology use in support of the curriculum to allow students to observe the right usage of ICT and to gain from the experience that they will utilize in future independently. Technology may be utilized to involve students in problem-solving and critical thinking improvement process through meaningful projects (Gilakjani, 2017). Technology may be utilized to reorganize language classes in order to promote the development of critical thinking abilities. Learner collaboration improves when technology is used. Cooperation significantly improves learning. The Pupils work in groups to generate developments and acquire from each other by understanding other's work.
Role of Teachers in Technology Integration
Educators are the primary drivers of ICT integration in the classroom. If we don’t recognize their role in integrating ICT, the learning process will have inadequate impacts (Lai, 2015). According to Torsani (2016), technology does not have a substantial impact on student accomplishment unless teachers play an active part in its implementation. Kuru Gönen (2019) concluded in a study that instructors in education technologies are seen as a major factor. Technology is changing the role of instructors and the activities of the classroom. Teachers are playing a number of functions, according to (Taghizadeh & Hasani Yourdshahi, 2020). Some of the names used to characterize them are experts, formal agencies, personal models, facilitators and delegators. Teachers who are experts should be highly informed in the topic they are teaching and should be a source of information for their pupils. Professors in the role of authority should be well educated in this field and think that students should conform to the regulations of the professors. They are authoritarian in this area. The function of the model is an example to follow and learn from what teachers in a class say, do or signal, and this may have a substantial influence on the growth of their pupils. Teachers that act as facilitator lead and assist the learning processes of their pupils by leading them to learn new things based on knowledge. Delegation teachers provide children with assignments and urge them to be self-employed.
Role of Learners in Technology Integration
With the incorporation of technology into their classrooms, the role of teachers is transformed. Hedayati et al. (2018) said that the role of students changes with technology integration from passive to active. Classes shift from teachers to students. Teacher-centred classrooms are traditional and passive roles are performed by students. Students get just information during these sessions, while professors have active organizing duties. Teachers plan courses, set class goals and provide their students with feedback. The responsibilities of instructors and students alter with the move from teacher-centred to learner-centred classrooms. The students are engaged, student participants. The independent duties of learners are assigned to CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) lessons (Özerol, 2009). This was corroborated by Mutlu & Eroz-Tuga (2013), who showed CALL to be autonomous. CALL allows an individual pupil to learn and leads to the autonomy of the students. Learners take on their own responsibilities and do not rely on their professors by integrating technology into their lessons. Technology also allows students to study in their own methods and allows them to learn and experience genuine language. If students utilize technology, they are not just information destinations but also active learners. Technology enables students to determine their interests and skills. The students appraise information and facts and communicate with their culture according to their pace of learning. ICT helps students to learn at their own speed and levels, and to manage their own learning, encourages active rather than passive learning increases learners' physical and mental skills, and includes students in studying and analyzing data, facilitating greater levels of reflection (Farahani et al., 2015).
Q 2: What are the Recent Developments of Technology Integration in Language Teaching and Learning?
Numerous researches have shown the advantages of technological integration into language learning. These studies cover different elements of language teaching and learning and are described in subsequent lines.
The rise in student motivation is an advantage of integrating ICT. This is an essential aspect that may provide students with many advantages in their language lessons. The usage of technology can increase the academic capacity of learners (Shadiev et al., 2017). The usage of CALL altered the learning arrogances of students and enhanced their self-confidence (Saidouni & Bahloul, 2016). This was reinforced by Reinders & Benson (2017) and Hazaymeh (2021), which said that technology application enhances the language skills and academic skills of students. The incorporation of technology has transformed techniques in language learning and education from instructor-centred to student-centred. Educators should facilitate and assist their pupils and lead them through them. This modification can be quite beneficial to enhance learning for students. ‘[(Khubyari & Narafshan, 2016).
Flores (2015) stated that technology permits students to collect and interact with materials such as pictures and videos. Akhmedov & Shuhkrat (2020) said that technology allows users to interact with the world and to generate high-quality work, and technology may reduce the tension of students. Research done by Bueno-Alastuey & López Pérez (2014) showed that technology reduced learner fear and allowed students to communicate more. These findings reflect the study of Chang et al. (2016), which shows that computers in the classroom have strengthened learning skills and improved their independence. In language lessons, the role of teachers should be altered from wise on the stage, while students should dynamically search for answers instead of accepting them—the usage of ICT aids instructors and students in this evolving process. The importance of technology integration is currently widely established in the sphere of education. Thanks to rapid access, technology can assist students and instructors in the study of course content. The usage of technology in the curriculum in schools, colleges and universities has allowed them to comprehend and clear up the issues. Technological improvements are an important means of preparing learners for what they study to find their place in the worldwide workforce. Technology promotes teaching and learning for learners and provides a true learning framework (Jueru et al., 2020).
Reinders & White (2016) showed that ICTs could encourage educators and learners to talk, examine and help with peers, analyze and think. The scientist realized that teachers should encourage their students to behave and think independently as learners grow more self-reliant. According to Parvin & Salam (2015), learners are able to expand their exposure to language in a relevant environment by employing technology in classrooms and to make their knowledge their own. Learners also get the chance to practise real-life skills in actual social situations. This may be achieved via cooperation amongst learners with actual projects and activities. One research has been done to improve learners' writing capabilities through the influence of wiki technology. Learners were requested to join a Wiki page to create passages, read and reply to their peers' passages. The conclusions of the study exposed that it was quite beneficial, while utilizing this kind of technology, to receive instant feedback from the teacher. The additional benefits of employing this technology for learners are to acquire vocabulary, language and phrase structure by reading the work of their students (Hung et al., 2018).
The dissemination of innovative theories is a process in which people explore new technologies and seeking to understand how successful these technologies are before they are accepted or rejected. This theory, therefore, provides an appropriate framework for analyzing the transformation process and how instructors are disseminating new innovations (Korucu Kis & Ozmen, 2019). English-language teaching has shifted from instructor-centred to student-centred approaches throughout the years. English Language initiatives in all regions of the world were initiated. Innovations in materials and technological gadgets have brought about transformation. In recent times, significant emphasis has been devoted to the use of technology as a means of developing language abilities so that English instructors are often introduced to new techniques.
Due to the introduction of technology, English teaching techniques have been significantly altered. Technology provides several advantages as an engaging and effective approach to education. Using technology allows students to engage and study according to their interests. It was widely recognized in the current world for teaching English. Technology meets students' visual and aural senses (Lai et al., 2016). Technology integration assists instructors in selecting their favourite multimedia and software that provides more engaged teaching. The traditional classes on the basis of lectures do not encourage students. Teachers may include more learners and deliver more dynamic courses by incorporating technology in their courses. Software for multimedia presentation enables the organization, display and use of information in innovative ways both by instructors and learners. In English lessons, for example, multiple presentations can be created by computer and overall projector according to the subject. In addition, multimedia software enables teachers to construct audio-visual storey themes with the real participation of the student (Johnson, 2017).
To find the answers to the questions that “How Technology Promote Learning?” and “What are the Recent Developments of Technology Integration in Language Learning?” a review of the literature was conducted. A total of 83 articles published from 2003 to 2021 were selected for this review. By searching and evaluating the relevant literature of the question that “How Technology Promote Learning?” the following results were obtained from the review of the studies:
1. Technology is a tool for the development of knowledge for showing views, understandings and beliefs of learners and for the production of organized learning bases.
2. Technology is a tool for discovering knowledge to promote learning through information access and the comparison of ideas and views of the world.
3. Technology is a genuine environment to promote learning in order to present and stimulate significant challenges, circumstances and contexts, to uncover beliefs, opinions, arguments and to define a space for student thinking in a controllable problem.
4. Technology is a social way to promote learning, discussing, rationalizing and achieving agreement amongst members of society and promoting discussion among knowledge-based groups.
5. Technology is an intellectual partner that promotes learning by enabling learners to say, say, think about what they have learnt and know about it, enable internal dialogue and the building of meaning, make personal meanings and encourage creative thinking. Technology affects the learning of learners positively. It makes students more involved, and so more information can be maintained. Technology offers useful experiences in learning. It allows students to cooperate more with their peers so that they are able to learn from one another.
In finding the answer to the question “The recent developments in technology integration in language learning” the review of the literature indicated that application of new technological tools like multimedia, audio-video visual aids, flipping the class, search engines like google and Wikipedia have sufficiently increased the efficiency of the language learning and teaching of both learners and teachers. The advanced technology application in language learning also provided better communication, comprehension and speaking skills for the learners. The review of literature also indicated that teachers and learners also play an important role in the successful implementation of technology in language learning.
Technology, according to the studies reviewed here, offers a wealth of materials and communication possibilities for both teaching and learning languages. To successfully integrate ICT into language classes, tutors or pupils must take on new duties and utilize contemporary tools appropriately. Of course, one of the definitive aims of language learning and teaching in technology is to encourage learners' motivation and learning interests, which may be a useful way of involving them in the linguistic learning process.
Teachers may successfully use technology in their language lessons if they are more informed, according to the research. Instructors must have professional qualities, including teaching and technological competence. Students can benefit from technology-based activities if they are connected to their needs and interests, according to one review research. The conclusions of the current review paper revealed that incorporating technology into the classroom allows teachers to be more creative and effective teachers, as well as encouraging students to participate in-class activities. The literature study revealed that incorporating technology into the classroom helps students learn more than what teachers are expected to learn. As a result of technological integration, it is becoming increasingly necessary for students and teachers to learn and teach other languages. It is expected that technology integration will continue to play a role in successful English language learning and teaching. Furthermore, instructors must remember that technology is simply a tool and that students' learning growth is dependent on proper and creative use of it. Furthermore, technology-based English education encourages and directs students to communicate more intimately, and the learning process is more student-centred while requiring less time. The findings of this paper's research can help both teachers and students. While skilled instructors can teach English skills with technological integration, many teachers will need to be educated in order to effectively teach the four skills so that their students may benefit from technology. Finally, educators should comprehend the benefits of using technology in their teaching and learning.